- Prevent bedsores
Due to long-term bed rest, the weight of the body presses on a certain tissue for a long time, so that the skin and subcutaneous tissues cannot get blood supply for a long time, resulting in tissue ischemia, swelling, ulceration, necrosis, and other changes, which are called bedsores.
First of all, for the elderly who cannot turn over on their own, the nursing staff will turn over on their behalf, turning over once every two hours or so, and the summer interval should be shorter. While turning over, simply rub the arms, legs, and bone protrusions gently on the patient. You can apply some talcum powder or talcum powder during a massage. It is best to put an air cushion or air bed on the thigh area so that the patient should be scrubbed frequently and the sheets and clothes should be changed frequently.
Secondly, we must keep the bed flat and soft, the sheets dry, and the skin clean. It is best to wipe and bathe the local tissues with warm water every day to improve the blood circulation of the local tissues. At the same time, avoid pushing, dragging, and pulling actions, so as not to damage the local skin and induce the formation of bedsores.
Finally, it is necessary to ensure the supply of nutrition for patients. The diet should be based on light, easy-to-digest foods, rich in protein, fat, sugar, vitamins, and other nutrients. Especially the protein supplement is more important. Pay attention to the supplement of crude fiber food while supplementing nutrition.
- Oral care
Benefits: It can keep the mouth clean and moist, prevent oral ulcers and infections and other complications, can also prevent bad breath and scalp, promote appetite, and find oral lesions in time.
Method: rinse your mouth and scrub your teeth.
Specific operation: First lie on the patient’s side, put a towel around the patient’s neck or pillow, let the patient rinse the mouth with warm water, and bite the upper and lower teeth at the same time, let the mouthwash liquid fully rotate in the oral cavity when rinsing, and keep it for seconds. The above is valid. After rinsing the mouth, the patient uses a cotton swab dipped in mouthwash to scrub the teeth, and longitudinally scrub the inner and outer surfaces of the teeth and the occlusal surface of the teeth in a certain order.
Commonly used mouthwashes are oral cleansers, 1%-3% hydrogen peroxide solution, 2%-3% boric acid solution, 1%-4% soda water, and so on.
- Hair care
Benefits: It can improve the blood circulation of the scalp, help the recovery of the disease, remove the dirt and shedding dander on the head, make the patient comfortable, clean and beautiful, and can also prevent and eliminate head lice.
Haircare includes two parts: combing and shampooing.
Combing hair on the bed
Spread a dry towel on the pillow, help the patient to turn his head to the side, and slowly comb the hair from the root to the tip, once a day. If the hair is tangled and clumped, it can be soaked with alcohol and then combed smoothly.
Shampoo in bed
Prepare to unfasten the collar button of the patient, fold the collar inward, wrap a small towel around the neck, and fix the pin. The patient lies on the bed at an angle, with the head near the edge of the bed, laying a rubber sheet, and a large towel on the pillow, placed under the neck and shoulders.
Horseshoe pillow method: Put the protrusion of the horseshoe pillow on the patient’s neck, and place the lower end in the sewage bucket.
Cup tapping method: Put a towel on the tapping cup, rest your head on the towel, and connect the washbasin and sewage bucket with a rubber tube. Shampoo cotton balls are inserted into the ears, gauze covers the eyes, moisten the hair, apply shampoo, use the fingertips to repeatedly rub from the hairline to the back of the head, while gently massaging the scalp to rinse off.
Post-shampoo treatment: Wrap the hair with a neck towel, remove the cotton ball, remove the gauze, dry the face, blow-dry the hair, remove the rubber sheet, and comb the hair with a large towel, move the pillow to the head of the bed, and assist the patient to lie in the center of the bed.
Note: During shampooing, pay attention to the changes in the patient’s face, breathing, and pulse. If there is any abnormality, stop immediately.